Hey there Aaron. After conferring with some of my colleagues (thanks Stephen!) and doing a little reading, it appears that what you’re looking to do isn’t really possible. While you can pass returns from the command line into PowerShell, it doesn’t work the other way. Even if you were able to pass arguments into the command line, your problem would be compounded with the lack of uniformity when it comes to exe installers. Depending on the tool used to package it, and the switches that the packager decided to allow, you often run into a different set of switches for just about every exe out there.
A possible solution might be OneGet, but it’s not yet “in production”. Your best bet at this point is to either continue with batch files, or use some sort of application deployment tool like SCCM.